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If we trained you for a particular assignment or type of duty antibiotics for uti in late pregnancy buy cheapest tetracycline and tetracycline, the value of this college would be short-lived virus epidemic discount tetracycline 250mg with amex. We want to educate you to be capable of doing well in a multitude of future duties antibiotics for uti drinking cheap 250mg tetracycline otc. Vice Admiral Stansfield Turner antibiotic resistance explained buy generic tetracycline on line, "Challenge: A New Approach to Professional Education," Naval War College Review Volume 25, no. The goal of the Strategy and Policy Course is to educate joint warfighters to become strategically minded and skilled at critical analysis. The education received at the College is meant to be of lasting value for someone serving in the Profession of Arms and as a national security professional. Student Outcomes the Naval War College Senior-level Professional Military Education Outcomes applicable to this course are listed below. Proficient in Strategic Decision-Making Involving Maritime, Joint, Interagency, and Multinational Warfighting Aware of maritime, joint, interagency, and multinational operations along with their strategic effects Skilled in applying sea power to achieve strategic effects across a wide range of conflicts Capable of integrating naval/military capabilities with other instruments of national power Understand challenges in accomplishing interagency and multinational coordination Enhanced awareness of American grand strategy from the founding of the Republic to the present day Prepared for Positions of Strategic Leadership Able to think strategically about all types of wars and strategic actors Skilled in evaluating alternative strategic courses of action Enhanced cultural awareness of key regions to include an understanding of the dynamics of the international strategic environment and geostrategic relationships Skilled in persuasive leadership by practicing the craft of writing clearly and speaking articulately about the relationship between operations, grand strategy, and policy Understand the importance of strategic communication and reaching multiple audiences Capable of Critical Thought Empowered with analytical frameworks to support policy and strategy decision-making Master the meaning of a wide range of classical and contemporary strategic concepts Aware of critical thinking and decision-making by real-world, strategic leaders Competent in strategic-level problem solving, creative thinking, and risk management Effective Maritime Spokespersons Understand classic works on sea power and maritime strategy Steeped in the maritime dimensions of warfare Understand warfare at sea-past, present, and future Conversant in a full range of naval capabilities 6 Skilled in applying naval perspective through use of analytical frameworks Aware of naval operations and their strategic effects 7 Course Themes the Strategy Department has developed eleven interrelated themes. They are neither a checklist of prescriptions nor a set of "school solutions," for the conduct of war can never be reduced to a formula or set of answers. Rather, they are categories of questions designed to provoke original thought, broad discussion, and careful evaluation of alternative strategic courses of action. We have divided these themes for the Strategy and Policy Course into two broad categories: those dealing with the process of formulating and executing strategies that support national policies-the choices; and those concerning the environment in which that process takes place-the constraints and opportunities bounding the choices. The environmental themes are akin to the hand of strategic cards each side has been dealt, while the process themes concern the choices on how to play them. What value did each participant in the conflict place on its political objectives If leaders decided to employ armed force in pursuit of their political objectives, how did they plan to use other instruments of power in support of their strategy Were the costs and risks of the war anticipated and commensurate with the benefits and rewards to be achieved What strategic guidance did political leaders provide to the military and what restraints did they impose What assumptions did statesmen and military leaders make about the contribution of proposed military objectives to the attainment of the overarching political objectives Was the outcome of the war more the product of sound strategy and superior leadership on the part of the victors or more the result of selfdefeating courses of action by the losing side Did the state (or non-state actor) choose to go to war based on an accurate appreciation of its own capabilities, military potential, and vulnerabilities as well as those of its enemy Did they offer the political leadership a balanced analysis of the available strategic options If the war was preemptive or preventive, how accurate was the information about imminent enemy action or enemy military trend lines Was the outbreak of the war optimally timed from the standpoint of the belligerent that initiated it To what extent did careful predictions about the likely behavior of coalition partners and neutral states factor into the decision to go to war Were there peaceful strategies that were potentially as promising or more promising than military ones that were nonetheless dismissed or overlooked Did a third party or parties "drag" major powers into a war that none of them wanted Did one power miscalculate how another power would respond to an aggressive or threatening action To what extent did civilian and military leaders correctly predict the nature of the war upon which they were embarking How well did each belligerent understand the culture, society, values, religious practices, political system, military traditions, and military potential of its enemy What kind of formal planning process to translate national policy into executable military strategies did each belligerent have What kind of interagency or other mechanisms did each have to integrate the non-military instruments of power
See Trachtenberg antibiotic klebsiella order 500 mg tetracycline mastercard, supra note 80 infection questions on nclex generic 500 mg tetracycline mastercard, at 4; see also Issacharoff bacteria reproduce asexually by purchase genuine tetracycline, supra note 117 bacteria shape purchase tetracycline cheap, at 197 (arguing that democracies may have more credibility than non-democracies in signaling intentions during crises, thereby helping to avoid inadvertent war). Fearon, Signaling Foreign Policy Interests: Tying Hands Versus Sinking Costs, 41 J. To bolster their bargaining position, states will seek to generate credible signals by making "hand-tying" commitments from which leaders cannot back down without suffering considerable domestic political costs. An adversary that understands these political vulnerabilities is thereby more likely to perceive a threat that a democratic leader does issue as highly credible, in turn making it more likely that the adversary will yield. Others dispute the notion that democracies have any significant signaling advantage over most autocracies. Furthermore, legislative processes-such as debates and hearings-make it difficult to conceal or misrepresent preferences about war and peace. Faced with such institutional constraints, Presidents will incline to be more selective about making such threats and avoid being undermined in that way. Some studies question the assumptions underpinning theories of audience costs-specifically the idea that democratic leaders suffer domestic political costs to failing to make good on their threats, and therefore that their threats are especially credible181-and others question whether the empirical data support claims that democracies have credibility advantages in making threats. At this point there remains a dearth of good historical evidence as to how foreign leaders interpret political maneuvers within Congress regarding threatened force. Nevertheless, at the very least, strands of recent political science scholarship cast significant doubt on the intuition that democratic checks are inherently disadvantageous to strategies of threatened force. Quite the contrary, they suggest that the types of legislative political checks discussed in the previous Section-including the signaling functions that Congress is institutionally situated to play with respect to foreign audiences interpreting U. Legal Reform and Strategies of Threatened Force Among legal scholars of war powers, the ultimate prescriptive question is whether the President should be constrained more formally and strongly than he currently is by legislative checks, especially a more robust and effective mandatory legal requirement of congressional authorization to use force. Calls for reform usually involve narrowing the circumstances in which congressional authorization is not constitutionally required, tightening enforcement of these purported requirements (by all three branches of government), or revising and enforcing the War Powers Resolution or other framework legislation requiring express congressional authorization for military actions. See Snyder & Borghard, supra note 183, at 440-41; see also Jervis, supra note 137, at 8 ("[S]cholars know remarkably little about how [judgments of credibility] are formed and altered. Whereas legal scholars are consumed with the internal effects of war powers law, such as whether and when it constrains U. Or would they undermine diplomacy by taking some threats legally off the table as viable policy options And would stronger formal legislative powers with respect to force have significant marginal effects on the signaling effects of dissent within Congress, beyond those already resulting from open political discourse These are difficult questions, but the analysis and evidence above help generate some initial hypotheses and avenues for further research and analysis. First, for reasons alluded to above, such limits would be constitutionally suspect and 186. Ratner, the Coordinated Warmaking Power-Legislative, Executive, and Judicial Roles, 44 S. One of the few pieces of legal scholarship to engage in this sort of analysis is Nzelibe & Yoo, supra note 23, at 2526-38 (arguing that credible signaling is an important element of rational constitutional design of war powers). This was a common policy argument during the War Powers Resolution debates in the early 1970s. Eugene Rostow, an advocate inside and outside the government for executive primacy, remarked during consideration of legislative drafts that any serious restrictions on presidential use of force would mean in practice that "no President could make a credible threat to use force as an instrument of deterrent diplomacy, even to head off explosive confrontations. Their position assumes that presidential flexibility to act militarily, preserved in legal doctrine, enhances the credibility of presidential threats to escalate. A second argument, this one advanced by some congressionalists, is that stronger legislative checks on presidential uses of force would improve deterrent and coercive strategies by making them more selective and credible. However, Eisenhower did not go so far as to suggest that congressional authorization ought to be legally required. Michael Reisman observed in 1989, for example, that ambiguity "in the allocation of competence and the uncertain congressional role will sow uncertainty among those who depend on U. Political scientists almost never directly engage these questions of constitutional design and reform (it is difficult, in fact, to find even passing references to questions of legal doctrine or reform in political science scholarship on threats of force). Partly this may reflect a general scholarly disposition favoring descriptive over normative or prescriptive analysis-the opposite of most American legal scholarship.
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Iron in water treatment for dogs fleas buy discount tetracycline 250mg, if present in an ionized form as a divalent cation antibiotics for uti list purchase tetracycline 500mg with visa, may interfere with the bioavailability of other divalent metals such as copper bacteria yeast and blood slide discount 250mg tetracycline otc, zinc antibiotics for uti pain generic tetracycline 250mg online, magnesium, manganese, or calcium. Cu deficiency is the most likely outcome of excess dietary iron in cattle and sheep. Interestingly, it has been suggested that elevated iron concentrations in the drinking water may be a significant risk factor promoting intestinal proliferation of Clostridium botulinum and subsequent botulism (Pecelunas et al. Our recent research has shown that high iron water promotes proliferation of Clostridium perfringens in the chicken intestinal content, and thus may increase the risk of necrotic enteritis (Olkowski et al. Although high levels of iron in drinking water may not be of toxicological significance per se, secondary metabolic effects should be considered for at least two reasons: 1) iron may affect water palatability, and thus reduce water intake, and 2) excessive intake of iron may have detrimental effects on metabolism of several essential micronutrients. Metabolic Interactions: Excess iron may affect many metabolic processes via a wide range of metabolic interactions. Among the physiologically significant effects are interactions with essential nutrients such as Co, Cu, Mn, Se, and Zn, where deficiency of these elements can be induced by high dietary iron. Antagonisms between copper and iron may have metabolic consequences (Suttle et al. The Fe antagonism towards copper does not appear to be manifested in the pre-ruminant calf (Bremner et al. At a level of 1,000 mg of supplemental iron per kilogram diet, the deleterious effect on copper status of cattle could not be alleviated by either copper sulphate or copper proteinate at the supplemental concentrations (5 or 10 mg/kg diet). Simmental steers consistently had lower copper status than Angus cattle, suggesting that Simmental have a higher copper requirement (Mullis et al. The accelerated depletion of liver copper reserves in weaned, iron-supplemented calves (Humphries et al. Ruminants consuming forage-based diets are often exposed to high levels of Fe through water, forage, and/ or soil ingestion. High dietary Fe has been shown to greatly reduce Cu status in cattle (Standish et al. Interactions of ferrous salts with vitamin C have been shown to have detrimental effects on animals (Fisher and Naugton, 2004). At the10 ppm level, water iron may contribute significantly to the overall dietary iron intake. For example, a cow producing 30 kg milk per day will drink, depending on environmental temperature, between 92 and 146 L of water per day. If the water contained 10 mg/L of Fe, water contribution to the Fe intake would be 920 to 1460 mg/day. Depletion of liver copper reserves in weaned, ironsupplemented calves may be associated with impaired copper absorption, and the interactions in both sheep and cattle are in part dependent on sulphur. Ascorbic acid (vit C) may enhance iron absorption, whereas vit E can prevent adverse effects. Adverse Effects and Signs of Toxicity Short Term, High Level Exposure Direct toxic effects associated with iron overload per se in cattle have not been recorded. Long Term, Low Level Exposure Iron in water, if present in an ionized form as a divalent cation, may interfere with the bioavailability of other divalent metals such as copper, zinc, magnesium, manganese, or calcium. Most of the adverse effects of dietary iron are indirectly associated with secondary deficiencies resulting from antagonistic interactions. Characteristic signs of chronic iron overload are reduced feed intake, growth rate, and efficiency of feed conversion. In calves, poorer performance may occur at dietary iron levels of 500 ppm or more. In surface water sources the oxidative environment often causes precipitation and settling of the iron. Anaerobic conditions can dissolve the settled iron and bring it back into water body. In groundwater, the reductive environment dissolves iron and maintains it in a dissolved state.
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