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Substitutability - Strength are antibiotics good for acne yahoo cheap zithromax online amex, length antibiotic resistance global threat discount 250 mg zithromax otc, and other properties of hemp bast fibre make it possible for it to move into the existing e-glass market (it has advantages over other sources of natural fibre such as wood and wheat straw) antibiotic resistance for uti purchase zithromax mastercard. Other Unique Properties - Hemp also has other unique properties o Hemp hurd is high in silica antibiotics for uti no alcohol discount zithromax 500mg on line, which when combined with lime reacts to form a lightweight cement-like substance with high strength, high insulation value, etc. The use of hemp in a number of industrial applications and products could significantly improve the environmental performance of these products, by decreasing their greenhouse gas footprint, by reducing the use of non-renewable resources such as fossil fuels, and by increasing their potential to be recycled and their biodegradability (addressing end of life issues). Strong Market Potential Currently, the price for hemp oil is exceedingly high ($1600 to $2500 per drum) for use in food and natural health applications. Hemp fibre and hurd are a bi-product of grain production and, as such, are currently an underutilized resource with much potential for use in a diverse array of products. At the present time, there is more of a market for hurd than fibre (as mentioned, hemp hurd is very absorbent and can be used as horse bedding with little processing required). Research is 69 underway in Canada to develop a concrete block with hemp hurd and small fibres as an ingredient. This research and development effort is being pursued with the involvement of an industry partner, to ensure immediate market pull upon successful commercialization. The straw bale industry is another potential market for hemp bi-products since hemp straw is strong, lightweight, and resistant to mold. While straw bale buildings have existed in Canada for a number of years, extensive and specific technical testing has not been conducted nor comprehensive structural data documented. One drawback to using hemp straw in straw bale building is that, due to the toughness of the fibre, there are difficulties in cutting bales to size using existing equipment. Canadian Experience and Research Capacity There is a broad and long term interest in industrial hemp in Canada, and Canadian growers have over ten years of experience in growing hemp for industrial applications. Rural Development Processing of hemp fibre can take place at smaller facilities located in rural areas, thereby stimulating economic activity and benefiting rural communities. This potential for rural development could be enhanced by current efforts to develop zero-waste water-free processing technologies for hemp fibres. Established Infrastructure Industrial hemp is grown all across the prairies, with production currently concentrated in the prairies. There is a growing base of infrastructure in Manitoba, Saskatchewan and Alberta, along with developing capacity in Ontario, British Columbia, and Quebec. Supportive Regulatory Environment In comparison with other jurisdictions, Canada offers a supportive regulatory environment for industrial hemp. The restrictive nature of some international regulatory bodies, however, presents a significant barrier to development of hemp as an export crop. Growing Demand for Bioenergy the demand for bioenergy is increasing rapidly due both to environmental concerns relating to traditional energy sources and the high cost of oil ($110/bbl) and other fossil fuels. Hemp produces the highest annual yield of biomass of any Canadian crop (6-10T/acre), and could therefore supply a significant portion of the demand for biomass both in Canada and abroad. In turn, these by-products could be used in a broad range of industrial applications including for substitution in glues, resins and plastics. There is the potential to produce a broad range of fuels from hemp, such as hydrogen gas for fuel applications. A longer term opportunity is the conversion of cellulose (sugars) from hemp (including from its fibres) to cellulosic ethanol. The Manitoba government is currently working on biomass energy initiatives relating to hemp. Superior Growth Characteristics Hemp offers a number of superior growth characteristics in comparison with other similar crop species including: Higher productivity per hectare (compared to poplar and aspen); More weed competitive; Lower chemical inputs to produce fibre; Lower energy input to process fibre; Root mass is beneficial to soil and prevents erosion; and the crop can be self seeding. Inefficient/Ineffective Processing Technologies There are a number of challenges currently associated with the processing of industrial hemp fibre, including: Existing retting and decortication processes weaken the hemp fibre. Research is still needed into best management practices for fibre production; Research is still needed into fibre separation technologies to optimize the fibre processing of different varieties of hemp (e. Lack of Supply the primary issue facing the development of hemp fibre applications in Canada is the lack of domestic commercial processing of bast fibres. Until one or more reliable sources of high quality processed fibres are available, the ability of downstream manufacturers to incorporate hemp fibres into their product lines will be extremely limited, as it is uneconomical to source commercial quantities of fibres from overseas. Transportation and Storage There is currently an insufficient supply of industrial hemp near processing plants and manufacturers to meet the needs of many commercial scale industrial applications.

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The high thermal insulation value of hemp hurd makes it ideal for use as insulation can taking antibiotics for acne make it worse zithromax 100 mg otc. Additionally antibiotic medical abbreviation order zithromax 100 mg online, hemp hurd has the ability to absorb and release moisture antibiotics and mirena buy zithromax american express, and resist the growth of mold virus zombie buy generic zithromax 500mg, dust and other pollutants. Hemp insulation presents an alternative to fibreglass, which has caused concerns about health dangers such as potential airborne glass particles that may cause respiratory problems. National Industrial Hemp Strategy 264 March 2008 Hempcrete Hemp hurd possess another unique and notable property: it can be mixed with lime and water and applied like cement in a wide number of construction applications. Hempcrete, like other hemp products, is also resistant to moulds, rodents and insects, and is fire retardant and weather resistant. Since hemp hurd is currently considered a bi-product of the hemp fibre separation process, they represent a relatively inexpensive feedstock that could potentially be very competitive in the building products industry. Paints, varnishes, inks and industrial lubricants Hemp oil has a long tradition of use in products such as lamp oil, paints, varnishes, sealants, lubricants for machinery, and printing inks. Hemp oil is classified as a semi-drying oil,483 and can be used in a range of oil-based industrial products including paint, varnish, detergent, solvent, and lubricating oil. Paints made from hemp oils have been found to penetrate wood better than other paints and provide high resistance to water. Hemp oils can also be used in non-toxic printing inks in offset printing, for example. Because of the relatively limited production of hemp in North America, and the resulting necessity 478 479 Materials such as gypsum, sand, or reinforcing fibres may also be added. Hempcrete takes one to two weeks to cure, and its strength increases progressively as it cures. A semi-drying oil (determined by the degree of saturation of the fatty acids) is an oil which partially hardens on exposure to air, in contrast with a drying oil, which hardens completely. National Industrial Hemp Strategy 265 March 2008 of importing hemp seed or oil, hemp oil remains very high-priced compared to similar oils such as flax oil. Therefore, it may be difficult for hemp to compete with other products until a larger domestic supply of hemp is available. If larger production volumes and lower prices are achieved, hemp oil may find industrial uses similar to those of linseed (flax), soybean, and sunflower oils, which are presently used in paints, inks, solvents, binders, and in polymer plastics. Biofuels Overview Biofuel is fuel derived from biomass, where biomass is defined as any material, excluding fossil fuels, which is or was a living organism that can be used as a fuel directly or after a conversion process. Biomass can be used in relatively unmodified form as a simple biofuel, particularly as a solid fuel. Already, biomass-driven combined heat and power, co-firing, and combustion plants provide reliable, efficient, and clean power and heat. Energy crops used for biofuel production include hemp, flax, wheat, corn (or maize), canola (or rapeseed), soybean, sugarcane, sunflower, and purpose-grown short-rotation woody species. Tim Yeo, added that, "Advanced second generation biofuels may have an important role in the future, but these technologies are some years away. National Industrial Hemp Strategy 266 March 2008 journal Science in early February 2008 echo this concern. Converting cropland to biofuel actually increases greenhouse emissions because of emissions generated through land use change. When the use of land is changed, carbon storage and sequestration from the crops previously grown on the land is sacrificed. For example, "instead of producing a 20% savings [corn-based ethanol] nearly doubles greenhouse emission over 30 years and increases greenhouse gases over 167 years. It is clearly circular to rule out emerging markets for hemp based on the fact that current supply is inadequate for those markets. This is a challenge common to all bioeconomic development, however, not an insurmountable barrier. Rapid growth in bioproducts sectors requires simultaneously optimizing entire value chains, from feedstock producers right through to end markets to ensure that no unaddressed links hold back the emerging sectors. Advantages of hemp as a crop for biofuels Hemp has a long and famous history of use as a source of biofuel. Henry Ford designed his automobiles to run on ethanol, including the 1908 Model T. Ford expected that ethanol, made from renewable biological materials, would be a major automobile fuel.

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Blenkinsopp A antibiotics over the counter discount zithromax 100mg on-line, Paxton P and Blenkinsopp J (2005) Symptoms in the Pharmacy zombie infection jar buy 100 mg zithromax with visa, 5th edn infection game plague inc cheap zithromax 250 mg without prescription. Gillespie S and Bamford K (2003) Medical Microbiology and Infection at a Glance antibiotic resistance questions and answers buy zithromax 100 mg on line, 2nd edn. A portable chest X-ray taken in A&E shows consolidation in the right lower lobe of her lungs and she is admitted to hospital. She had a myocardial infarction 3 years previously and underwent coronary artery bypass grafting. On examination, her vital signs are recorded as follows: I I I I I heart rate 110 bpm temperature 38. The patient is diagnosed with community-acquired pneumonia and the treatment plan is as follows: I I I I I I continue oxygen salbutamol nebulised 2. The patient is assessed on the post-take ward round at 8am the following morning and is noted to have improved slightly with saturations currently at 95% on 2 L/min of oxygen. Blood culture results have been phoned to the ward reporting Gram-positive cocci in one culture bottle; further identification and antibiotic sensitivity testing are pending. What are the important pathogens and appropriate treatment options for severe community-acquired pneumonia Outline a pharmaceutical care plan for this patient with severe communityacquired pneumonia, including advice to the clinician. What are the prognosis and potential complications of community-acquired pneumonia On examination, the patient has a fever and he is unable to touch his chin to his knees. He takes occasional caffeine tablets prior to examinations but otherwise takes no regular medication. On arrival at A&E, his vital signs are recorded as follows: I I I I I heart rate 124 bpm temperature 39. The patient is diagnosed with suspected meningitis and the treatment plan is as follows: I I I I I I cefotaxime i. Questions 1 What are the signs and symptoms of meningitis and meningococcal septicaemia (bloodstream infection) What are the important pathogens and appropriate treatment options for bacterial meningitis, including alternatives in penicillin allergy Which antibiotic regimens achieve therapeutic concentrations in the cerebrospinal fluid and which should be avoided Outline a pharmaceutical care plan for this patient with meningitis, including advice to the clinician. He also has a 5-year history of ischaemic heart disease and underwent coronary artery bypass grafting one year ago. Dorsalis pedis and posterior tibial pulses were palpable, suggesting adequate arterial supply I n f e ctio n s cas e s tudie s 113 to the foot. His vital signs are recorded as follows: I I I I I heart rate 117 bpm temperature 38. A urine dipstick indicates a urinary glucose of >25 mmol/L but is negative for nitrites and leucocyte esterase. Planned investigations include: I I I I I I I I I I blood cultures wound cultures blood glucose creatinine urea and electrolytes and full blood count C-reactive protein liver function tests arterial blood gases X-ray magnetic resonance imaging if X-ray inconclusive.


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However bacteria under microscope order zithromax 100 mg amex, not all microbes (also called microorganisms) cause disease; most are actually beneficial antibiotic yellow tablet best zithromax 100 mg. Not only do they work in the food industry antibiotics for persistent uti purchase genuine zithromax online, they are also employed in the veterinary and medical fields antibiotic cream for dogs order zithromax with amex. They can work in the pharmaceutical sector, serving key roles in research and development by identifying new sources of antibiotics that could be used to treat bacterial infections. Environmental microbiologists may look for new ways to use specially selected or genetically engineered microbes for the removal of pollutants from soil or groundwater, as well as hazardous elements from contaminated sites. Microbiologists can also work in the field of bioinformatics, providing specialized knowledge and insight for the design, development, and specificity of computer models of, for example, bacterial epidemics. The small size of prokaryotes allows ions and organic molecules that enter them to quickly diffuse to other parts of the cell. This is not the case in eukaryotic cells, which have developed different structural adaptations to enhance intracellular transport. Small size, in general, is necessary for all cells, whether prokaryotic or eukaryotic. You may remember from your high school geometry course that the formula for the surface area of a sphere is 4r2, while the formula for its volume is 4r3/3. Thus, as the radius of a cell increases, its surface area increases as the square of its radius, but its volume increases as the cube of its radius (much more rapidly). Therefore, as a cell increases in size, its surface area-to-volume ratio decreases. One way to become more efficient is to divide; another way is to develop organelles that perform specific tasks. These adaptations lead to the development of more sophisticated cells called eukaryotic cells. The cell on the left has a volume of 1 mm3 and a surface area of 6 mm2, with a surface area-to-volume ratio of 6 to 1, whereas the cell on the right has a volume of 8 mm3 and a surface area of 24 mm2, with a surface area-to-volume ratio of 3 to 1. In architecture, this means that buildings should be constructed to support the activities that will be carried out inside them. For example, a skyscraper should be built with several elevator banks; a hospital should be built so that its emergency room is easily accessible. Our natural world also utilizes the principle of form following function, especially in cell biology, and this will become clear as we explore eukaryotic cells (Figure 4. Unlike prokaryotic cells, eukaryotic cells have: 1) a membrane-bound nucleus; 2) numerous membrane-bound organelles such as the endoplasmic reticulum, Golgi apparatus, chloroplasts, mitochondria, and others; and 3) several, rod-shaped chromosomes. At this point, it should be clear to you that eukaryotic cells have a more complex structure than prokaryotic cells. Organelles allow different functions to be compartmentalized in different areas of the cell. The plant cell has a cell wall, chloroplasts, plastids, and a central vacuole-structures not found in animal cells. If the nucleolus were not able to carry out its function, what other cellular organelles would be affected The Plasma Membrane Like prokaryotes, eukaryotic cells have a plasma membrane (Figure 4. A phospholipid is a lipid molecule with this OpenStax book is available for free at cnx. The plasma membrane controls the passage of organic molecules, ions, water, and oxygen into and out of the cell. Wastes (such as carbon dioxide and ammonia) also leave the cell by passing through the plasma membrane. The plasma membranes of cells that specialize in absorption are folded into fingerlike projections called microvilli (singular = microvillus); (Figure 4. Such cells are typically found lining the small intestine, the organ that absorbs nutrients from digested food. People with celiac disease have an immune response to gluten, which is a protein found in wheat, barley, and rye. The immune response damages microvilli, and thus, afflicted individuals cannot absorb nutrients.

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A mix of both soluble and insoluble fibres is considered the most desirable bacteria bloom in aquarium zithromax 250 mg free shipping, unless a specific condition is being treated oral antibiotics for acne doxycycline discount 250 mg zithromax. Products aimed at overweight cats and dogs (an ever increasing category) contain soluble fibres which can assist in improving satiation and reducing caloric intake virus hoax purchase 500mg zithromax with visa, important in weight reduction and weight management diets338 antimicrobial bit in mouthwashes discount 250 mg zithromax overnight delivery. Dietary fibre is also found in soft and hard foods geared towards reducing hairballs in cats. Diabetes mellitus is a chronic disease that is increasingly impacting companion animals. Diets high in soluble fibres slow down absorption of sugar from the intestines and can assist in insulin control. In dogs, a diet high in insoluble fibre has also been shown to help regulate glycemic control, as well as assist in weight management339. Diabetic cats show an improved glycemic response to a high fiber diet; however, many cats with type2 diabetes appear to benefit from a diet high in protein and low in carbohydrate340. Dietary fibre is being studied in cats and dogs in related to gastrointestinal health. National Industrial Hemp Strategy 206 March 2008 in the treatment of small bowel diarrhea341. For diseases of the large bowel, diets high in both soluble and insoluble fibres may have utility342. Specialty Ingredients Specialized and supplemented products are gaining prevalence. The premium and super-premium pet food and pet treat sector have experienced the most growth, with many pet foods and treats introduced with functional benefits. Consumers are looking for pet food products containing health promoting compounds. It is also important to note that pets do not consume the variety of foods that humans do, and thus owners ". Treatment of chronic idiopathic large-bowel diarrhea in dogs with a highly digestible diet and soluble fiber: a retrospective review of 37 cases. Flaxseed, as a source of omega-3 fatty acids, has become a popular pet food ingredient due to the notion that "flaxseed has the same reported health benefits in companion animals that it does in humans. Peas also offer excellent nutritional benefits, with both the protein and carbohydrate component being highly digestible in dogs347. Health Canada administers legislation prohibiting unsubstantiated health claims in the advertising and labelling of pet food. The Competition Bureau of Industry Canada administers legislation requiring that prepackaged pet food destined for retail consumption be labelled with a bilingual common name, metric net quantity declaration and dealer name and address. The legislation also prohibits false and misleading representations and deceptive marketing practices. Volunteer guidelines for pet food labelling and advertising guide for dog and cat foods were adopted by the industry in September 2001. The Guide for the Labelling and Advertising of Pet Foods 349 was updated in August 2005. Although not law, it addresses labelling, ingredient statements, guaranteed analysis and nutrient profiles. Products that are considered to be "drugs" as defined by the Food and Drugs Act are not covered by this guide. Effects of dietary flaxseed and sunflower seed supplementation on skin and hair coat clinical scores in normal dogs. Pet food and feed applications of inulin, oligofructose, and other oligosaccharides. Safety and quality assurance is required for products entering the natural pet health market. Should product health claims be of interest, efficacy testing in animals would be required. An isolate is defined as "a purified constituent of a defined molecular structure obtained from a plant or a plant material, an alga, a bacterium, a fungus or a non-human animal material". At the federal level, animal feeds are regulated under the Federal Food, Drug, and Cosmetic Act.

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