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Numerous other incidents in China and later in Southeast Asia further tarnished the reputation of the Japanese forces allergy symptoms 8 weeks alavert 10 mg for sale. The postwar trials allergy testing dermatologist alavert 10 mg without prescription, however allergy medicine epinephrine proven 10mg alavert, largely considered rape to be part of a more general violation of law or inhumane treatment allergy medicine breastfeeding buy alavert with a mastercard, and not a war crime per se. After Japan occupied the Dutch East Indies (present-day Indonesia), the Japanese military forced many young women-including Dutch as well as Eurasian-into providing sexual service to the Japanese. Those Japanese responsible were punished by the Dutch authorities after the war on account of the abuse of the Dutch women. In the 1970s, a few writers in Japan began treating the subject as a crime committed by the Imperial Japanese Army. Their work resulted in a multi-volume collection of documents and a comprehensive bibliography on the subject. As Yoshimi points out, numerous Japanese government documents were either lost or remain classified. Among them are police records belonging to the former Home Ministry that allegedly had been destroyed. The number of women victims remains a subject of disagreement; popular accounts frequently give the figure of 200,000. Some also question the veracity of the testimony provided by former "comfort women" as well as their motivation to testify in public. Hata Ikuhiko, for one, has taken the lead and published many essays as well as a major work on this subject. Hata essentially equates the "comfort women" system with prostitution and finds similar practices during the war in other countries. The Tokyo War Crimes Trial accused Japan of selling narcotics to raise money for its clandestine operations. It is known that not only Japanese soldiers but also some officers and newspaper reporters took part in looting after the Japanese takeover of Chinese cities like Nanjing. More recently, some Chinese scholars accused the Japanese military of systematically looting Chinese cultural property during the war, which amounted to what some called a "cultural holocaust. In a series of spirited rebuttals, however, a Japanese scholar accused Zhao of writing polemics, not history based on credible evidence. To this day in Southeast Asia, tales of hidden Japanese treasure still create a sensation. Second, historians must make better use of documents that are already open to the public. Australian, British, and Dutch archives remain Documentary Evidence and Studies of Japanese War Crimes I 43 to be fully exploited. This is all the more important since documentary evidence on certain subjects is likely to remain sketchy, in large part due to the large scale destruction after the war. Private records such as diaries and memoirs can help to fill the gap, as can interviews with the participants and survivors. As the number of survivors dwindles each day, conducting good oral histories is more urgent than ever. To be sure, caution is necessary when using such testimony, and every attempt must be made to confirm testimony with other types of evidence when possible. Compared with the recent scholarship on the European Theater, professional historians of Asia have only begun to study such subjects as forced labor and wartime looting of art and property. A more challenging task for historians is to convincingly explain why these war crimes occurred. War crimes-as well as their repercussions-cannot be understood in isolation from the larger context of military, intellectual, or social-economic histories. A problem with some current work is the tendency to return to the wartime practice of demonizing the enemy. While it may be psychologically satisfying to some, such an approach contributes little to understanding the real causes of war crimes, let alone preventing them in the future.

Proceedings of the Symposium held in Dresden allergy medicine 711 purchase 10mg alavert amex, German Democratic Republic in March 1987 allergy medicine nightmares purchase 10mg alavert otc. The status of cold water fish and fisheries in Nepal and prospects of their utilization for poverty reduction allergy forecast edison nj buy alavert 10mg on-line, in: Petr allergy treatment local honey purchase alavert online, T. An order was received to kill the residents and eighty (80) of them, men and women of all ages, were shot to death [at dusk]. Soon the heavy machine guns opened fire and the sight of those people screaming and falling to the ground is one I could not face even if I had had the heart of a monster. It is likely that the author removed this page when he returned to Japan during the war for fear that it might cause trouble with military censors. To make his handwriting legible, Hosaka copied the November 29 entry in clearer handwriting on a separate sheet of paper, which was then attached to the opposite page in the diary. The Tokyo War Crimes Tribunal investigated atrocities committed by the Japanese Army in the Rape of Nanking. Despite his reference to a major atrocity against Chinese civilians a week before the battle of Nanjing and in the general vicinity, officially the Rape of Nanking began on December 13th, the day the city fell, and was spatially confined to Nanjing and its immediate vicinity. In the early 1980s, Japanese journalist Honda Katsuichi claimed that the brutal behavior of Japanese troops in Nanjing was by no means an isolated incident as some in Japan claimed. Instead, it fit into a pattern of Japanese atrocities in the Lower Yangtze area against Chinese since the battle of Shanghai. Honda came to this conclusion after extensive interviews with Chinese survivors and examining existing Japanese records. The diary of Makihara Nobuo was discovered by a Japanese citizen group and published in 1988 together with the diaries of several other veterans. Makihara, a twenty-two year old private first class belonging to the 3rd Platoon of the Machine Gun Company of the 20th Infantry Regiment, 16th Division, wrote on November 29, 1937: Depart from the village at 9:00 a. Enter the town magnificently, passing an impressive temple (even though there are many temples in China). Because Wu Jing is an anti-Japanese stronghold, we carry out "mopping up" [st] operations in the entire town, killing all men and women without distinction. The enemy is nowhere to be seen, either because they have lost the will to fight after their defense line at Wu Xi was breached or they are holding strong positions further ahead. A squad leader in the Machine Gun Company of the 3rd Battalion (where Hosaka also served) named Kitayama also published his diary but did not record the massacre on that same day. This was probably due to the fact that he and another soldier went About the Cover I xi sightseeing near the hills. The diary of Hosaka Akira establishes beyond any reasonable doubt that a massacre of some eighty Chinese civilians was carried out by order by a Japanese unit equipped with heavy machine guns. It reconfirms the argument, first advanced by Japanese journalist Honda Katsuichi, that the Rape of Nanking was not an isolated incident, but fit into a pattern of atrocities since the battle of Shanghai. The bestselling book spurred a tremendous amount of renewed interest in Japanese wartime conduct in China, Korea, the Philippines, Southeast Asia, and the Pacific. Did the United States suppress evidence of the criminal responsibility of activity by the emperor to ensure a smoothly running occupation of Japan I am indebted to Carol Gluck and Gerhard Weinberg for their insightful comments on this essay. Thorough documentation of Japanese war crimes and criminal activities among these holdings seemed unavailable, leading to speculation of an official cover-up. Armed with this latest evidence and capitalizing on a heightened consciousness in the United States about Japanese wartime crimes, victims and advocates pressed their cases with more determination and with greater popular and political support than had been the case in years prior. American veterans who had been held captive by the Japanese renewed claims for justice and recompense, and wanted an official apology from the Japanese government for the institutionalized brutality under which they suffered during their long years in captivity. Ishii Shir,4 carried out army-sponsored experiments on humans for the purpose of developing effective biological warfare weapons. Japan was also called to account for its wartime use of slave labor or coerced workers. During the war years, the Japanese government forcibly removed workers from Korea, China, and elsewhere in Asia and shipped them to Japan as unpaid labor for dangerous work in coal mines and for heavy construction. When confronted by advocacy and human rights groups, the Japanese government insisted these issues had been settled by stipulations of the peace treaty signed in San Francisco in September 1951. Not only did Japanese authorities refuse to acknowledge any wartime responsibility, but several conservative politicians and senior bureaucrats went so far as to publicly denounce the accusations as groundless historical revisionism and Japan bashing. There was, of course, a domestic political dimension to the accusations (no candidate from the conservative ruling party could win an election by blaming Japan for a war of aggression), but the hardline official Japanese position created the impression in the United States that Japanese war crimes and related subjects such as war guilt or the role of Emperor Hirohito in the war were taboo subjects in Japan.

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So far there have been limited efforts to undertake detection and attribution analyses of climate change in developing countries (Ebi et al allergy symptoms bags under eyes cheap 10mg alavert with visa. Risks are also increased with water scarcity because the of unprotected water sources and reduced hygiene practices when water is scarce increases the risk of cases of diarrhea as a result of flooding (Lloyd et al allergy medicine walmart generic alavert 10 mg with mastercard. There is a correlation between higher temperatures and diarrhea for all causes of diarrhea allergy shots birth control cheap 10 mg alavert fast delivery, but in particular diarrhea caused by bacteria and protozoa (Levy et al allergy medicine ac buy alavert with visa. In Asia, the monthly average incidence (that is, new cases) of diarrhea in Bhutan was found to be highly seasonal. In Taiwan, the average temperature and the maximum daily rainfall influenced the incidence of outbreaks of Vibrio parahaemolyticus disease (Hsiao et al. Significant associations between weather variables, including flooding, and diarrhea have also been observed in Cambodia (McIver et al. In Africa, there is some evidence of a correlation between temperature variability and cholera outbreaks, but the quality of evidence is low for similar studies on diarrhea (Amegah et al. In Mozambique, a strong association was found between diarrheal diseases and precipitation (Horn et al. Different longterm warming trends across regions may induce outbreaks of clustered infectious diseases, particularly at non-traditional places and atypical times (Wu et al. It is expected that climate change will significantly affect important water-related diseases globally. The impact of climate change on diarrheal disease is projected to be higher in Asia and Africa (see table 7. In 2030, sub-Saharan Africa is projected to have the greatest burden of mortality impacts attributable to climate change, while in the 2050 horizon it will be Southeast Asia. The decline shown in values for the 2050 horizon stems from the assumption that recent trends in socioeconomic Table 7. However, a recent World Bank report warns that climate change could force more than 100 million additional people into extreme poverty by 2030, thereby reversing previous development progress (Hallegatte et al. There are no similarly comprehensive projections for several climate-sensitive water-borne and food-borne outcomes. In Europe, climate change is expected to impact upon the campylobacter risk (Semenza et al. For Hubli-Dharwad in India, the prevalence of all causes of diarrhea was predicted to increase by 4. In the Middle East, a study for Bayrout predicted a substantial increase in food- and water-borne related morbidity of 16 percent to 28 percent by 2050 (El-Fadel et al. The influence of climate variability, and particularly temperature, is well studied for several vectors, particularly with regard to biological processes, such as replication rate, development and transmission of pathogens (Altizer et al. Even small changes in seasonal temperature can lead to considerable seasonal changes in abundance and mosquito phenology in some species (Ewing et al. Zika is a good example of a disease that presented an explosion of cases in the world from the 2000s: 2007 in Micronesia, 2010 in Cambodia, 2012-2014 in Thailand, 2013 in French Polynesia and 2016 in Brazil (Sikka et al. Annual numbers of cases of dengue fever have also experienced a notable increase, doubling every decade since 1990, with over 58 million apparent cases (that is diagnosed, but not confirmed in a laboratory) in 2013 (Stanaway et al. Recent studies focus on mosquito-borne infections such as dengue fever, zika virus, chikungunya and malaria (Caminade et al. For example, heavy increases in rainfall are expected for some regions, which could increase the risk of diseases like chikungunya (Roiz et al. Nevertheless, future warming could in some cases reduce the potential risk in existing high- transmission settings due to a reduction in vectorial capacity (Chaves et al. Models of the impact of temperature on zika, dengue and chikungunya transmission in the Americas reveal that the transmission peak of A. Using ecological niche modelling, in different scenarios of greenhouse gas emissions (A2, B1 and A1B), the expected changes in temperature and precipitation can lead to a change in the establishment of A. Both an intensification in endemic areas and a spreading of the dengue virus to new areas in Asia, Europe and North America are expected, mainly due to projected trends related to rising temperatures and increased urbanization (Murray et al.

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Editorial comment: Botulism is the clinical manifestation of poisoning with toxins produced by Clostridium botulinum allergy shots weaken immune system purchase 10 mg alavert mastercard, a spore-forming obligate anaerobic bacterium that is distributed in soil woridwide allergy symptoms for babies cheap alavert 10 mg without prescription. The forms differ only in relation to the sites and circumstances oftoxin production allergy forecast des moines order alavert 10mg overnight delivery. As the bacterial toxin is absorbed from the intestine allergy medicine generic zyrtec cheap alavert online, it is distributed throughoutthe body in the bloodstream. When toxin reaches presynaptic termini of peripheral nerves, it irreversibly binds to them. As the disease develops, loss ofvoluntary and involuntary muscle function produces a "floppy" infantthat ultimately requires mechanical ventilation for life support. Infants with botulism generally require prolonged hospitalizations and weeks of intensive care. In addition, complications ofthe illness may be life threatening orchronically disabling. A review of cases in California from 1992-1997 found that more than $8 million were required for care of approximately 60 infant botulism patients. Adults and older children with normal gastrointestinal anatomies andmicroflora are not susceptible to infant botulism, probably because their fully developed gut bacteria do not permit the growth of C. Immediate actions are required to prevent further consumption of contaminated food and to identify, evaluate, and treat other potential cases. Equine antitoxin is not given to children, however, due to risks of severe allergic reactions and serum sickness. Thus, for its first 15 years, standard treatment of infant botulism was entirely supportive. Development of infant botulism in a 3-year-old female with neuroblastoma following autologous bone marrow transplantation: potential use of human botulism immune globUlin. As an additional benefit it may enhance current health communications to , and information for, the residents and workers of Fort Meade and the surrounding area (though the information must be presented in proper context to avoid the opposite effect, namely, generating either fear or a false sense of ability of garrison to mitigate). Among animals, this disease is seen most often in waterfowl, poultry, mink, cattle, sheep, horses, and some species of fish; an estimated 10 to 50 thousand wild waterfowl are killed annually by botulism. A form of botulism also appears to be responsible for the shaker foal syndrome in horses. Botulinum toxins can be used as a bioterrorist weapon spread by aerosol, or contamination of food or drink, therefore all cases should be reported immediately and thoroughly investigated. Naturally caused cases of botulism are rare in domestic mammals in the United States; cases in wildfowl and poultry are more common. Etiology Clostridium botulinum is a spore-fonning, anaerobic bacterium which produces a potent neurotoxin. All types of botulinum toxin produce the same disease; however, the toxin type is important if antiserum is used for treatment. Clinical disease is seen most often in wildfowl, poultry, mink, cattle, sheep, horses, and some species of fish. Dogs, cats, and pigs are relatively resistant; botulism is seen occasionally in dogs and pigs but has not been reported from cats. In ruminants, botulism mainly occurs in areas where phosphorus or protein deficiencies are found. This disease is rare in ruminants in the United States, although a few cases have been reported in Texas and Montana. Preformed toxins can be found in a variety of sources, including decaying vegetable matter (grass, hay, grain, spoiled silage) and carcasses. Carnivores usually ingest the toxins in contaminated meat such as chopped raw meat or fish. Ruminants in phosphorus-deficient areas may chew bones and scraps of attached meat; a gram of dried flesh can have enough botulinum toxin to kill a cow. Ruminants may also be fed hay or silage contaminated by the toxin-containing carcasses of birds or mammals. Birds can ingest the toxins in maggots that have fed on contaminated carcasses or in dead invertebrates from water with decaying vegetation.

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