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Under their supervision treatment gout order genuine endep, park management was set in a direction that would continue with little change for at least the next half-century treatment viral conjunctivitis discount endep 25mg without a prescription, thus fundamentally affecting the conditions of the parks and the attitudes and culture of the National Park Service itself medicine 013 discount endep 10mg on-line. Storer medications epilepsy endep 50mg discount, also at the University of California, reflected on the various uses of the parks, from recreation to ``retaining the original balance in plant and animal life. In November 1928, shortly before the ailing Mather resigned as first director of the Service, his soon-to-be successor, Horace Albright, wrote him about possible new positions for forest, fish, and wildlife management. After more than a decade of enthusiastic development of the national parks for tourism, Albright stated that it was ``highly essential' to begin hiring staff in ``other than. The act consolidated park management, enabling it to focus on the needs of the entire system and giving it a voice with which to promote the national park idea to Congress and the public. National park leadership was elevated to a fully visible and aggressive new bureau within the Department of the Interior, and was backed by leading proponents of outdoor recreation, tourism, and landscape preservation. The fact that by the time Mather resigned he had become an institutional hero within the Service and commanded respect in broader conservation circles suggests that his persistent expansionist and developmental policies met with widespread approval. Building Park Service Leadership Because the various national parks had previously been independent of one another, with no effort at a cooperative approach to management policy and practice, very little organization building had taken place within the system. Army had held responsibility for three of the most complex parks in the system, it had not sought to build a national park empire. Prior to withdrawal, its leaders urged that park duties were costly and inappropriate for the army and should be terminated. Moreover, Mather judged many of the civilian superintendents of the other parks to be ineffectual, and would soon replace them with his own men. Enjoying considerable discretion as director, he could determine what kinds of expertise were most needed to run the parks under the new mandate. Although the Organic Act was passed in August 1916, it was not until the following spring that Congress appropriated funds for the Park Service. Next to Mather, Horace Albright was the most powerful individual in the directorate, serving first in Washington, and then, from 1919 to 1929, as Yellowstone superintendent, with continuing directorate responsibilities. As Mather staffed the new bureau, two groups assumed positions of special power and influence: one group consisted of landscape architects and engineers-professionals who oversaw park development; the other consisted of park managers-the superintendents and their rangers who were in charge of day-to-day operation of the parks. As the Service matured into a sizable and highly successful bureau, it would develop a strong sense of identity and purpose and, concurrently, a sense of working together as a kind of close-knit family-the ``Park Service family,' as it would become fondly known by many employees. Policies developed and honed during the Mather era would exert an enduring, pervasive influence on national park history. Schein, in his study of organizational culture and leadership, discusses how organizational cultures ``begin with leaders who impose their own values and assumptions on a group. The extensive involvement of these professions initially sprang from the public understanding of national parks as pleasuring grounds and soon worked to perpetuate this perception. Especially prominent were leaders of the American Society of Landscape Architects and the American Civic Association, including Fredrick Law Olmsted, Jr. Mather himself was a longtime member of the American Civic Association; following his resignation, the landscape architects awarded him an honorary life membership in their national society. Mather believed that landscape architects filled a ``serious gap' in his organization; and in 1922, seeking to ensure that new construction ``fit into the park environment in a harmonious manner,' he required their approval on ``all important plans' for the parks. This authority was also extended to park development undertaken by concessionaires. In developing the parks Perpetuating Tradition 51 in cooperation with architects and engineers, landscape architects sought not only to avoid intruding on scenery, but also to display scenery to its best advantage with the proper placement of roads, trails, and buildings. They designed plantings to screen unattractive development from view, and planned intensively developed areas, with parking lots, sidewalks, buildings, lawns, and gardens. The authority of the landscape architects did not mean that their decisions went unchallenged; rather, they frequently skirmished with superintendents, concessionaires, and others over the details of plans and designs. In September 1922 a dispute over the design of two bridges in Yosemite caused Arno B. Cammerer wrote confidentially to Olmsted that, regarding such disagreements, some superintendents were ``bucky in the matter' and needed to be better educated in park design and development concerns. He pressed the issue later that year at the superintendents conference, and again in the 1923 conference, when he reiterated that the superintendents must cooperate with the landscape architects. The pervasiveness of landscape architecture in the national parks encouraged some in the profession to argue for it to have even greater authority within the Service.
They were as the deer of an English squire medicine keychain buy endep 10 mg on-line, or as the stud of a man who has many more horses than he can ride symptoms estrogen dominance cheap endep online amex. An ox was almost a sacred beast in Damara-Land symptoms estrogen dominance order endep without a prescription, not to be killed except on momentous occasions symptoms 11dpo discount endep 25mg with amex, and then as a sort of sacrificial feast, in which all bystanders shared. I was considerably embarrassed by finding that I had the greatest trouble in buying oxen for my own use, with the ordinary articles of barter. One of the ways in which the value of tamed beasts would be soon appreciated would be that of giving milk to children. I have had the milk of my goats, when encamping for the night in African travels, drained dry by small black children, who had not the strength to do more than crawl about, but nevertheless came to some secret understanding with the goats and fed themselves. The records of many nations have legends like that of Romulus and Remus, who are stated to have been suckled by wild beasts. This necessity limits very narrowly the number of species which might otherwise have been domesticated. The North American turkey, reared from the eggs of the wild bird, is stated to be unknown in the third generation, in captivity. Our turkey comes from Mexico, and was abundantly domesticated by the ancient Mexicans. The Indians of the Upper Amazon took turtle and placed them in lagoons for use in seasons of scarcity. When animals reared in the house are suffered to run about in the companionship of others like themselves, they naturally revert to much of their original wildness. It is therefore essential to domestication that they should possess some quality by which large numbers of them may be controlled by a few herdsmen. The herdsman of a vast troop of oxen grazing in a forest, so long as he is able to see one of them, knows pretty surely that they are all within reach. When animals are not gregarious, they are to the herdsman like a falling necklace of beads whose string is broken, or as a handful of water escaping between the fingers. It is retained by its extraordinary adhesion to the comforts of the house in which it is reared. An animal may be perfectly fitted to be a domestic animal, and be peculiarly easy to tend in a general way, and yet the circumstances in which the savages are living may make it too troublesome for them to maintain a breed. He says "In the chase the hunters are assisted by dogs, which they take when young and domesticate; but they take little pains to train them to any particular mode of hunting. After finding a litter of young, the natives generally carry away one or two to rear; in this case, it often occurs that the mother will trace and attack them; and, being large and very strong, she is rather formidable. At some periods, food is so scanty as to compel the dog to leave his master and provide for himself; but in a few days he generally returns. The gregariousness of all our domestic species is, I think, the primary reason why some of them are extinct in a wild state. The wild herds would intermingle with the tame ones, some would become absorbed, the others would be killed by hunters, who used the tame cattle as a shelter to approach the wild. Besides this, comfort-loving animals would be less suited to fight the battle of life with the rest of the brute creation; and it is therefore to be expected that those varieties which are best fitted for domestication, would be the soonest extinguished in a wild state. For instance, we could hardly fancy the camel to endure in a land where there were large wild beasts. The tamest cattle-those that seldom ran away, that kept the flock together and led them homewards-would be preserved alive longer than any of the others. It is therefore these that chiefly become the parents of stock, and bequeath their domestic aptitudes to the future herd. I have constantly witnessed this process of selection among the pastoral savages of South Africa. I believe it to be a very important one, on account of its rigour and its regularity. It must have existed from the earliest times, and have been in continuous operation, generation after generation, down to the present day. I should add the ducks and geese of North America, but I cannot consider them in the light of a very strong case, for a savage who constantly changes his home is not likely to carry aquatic birds along with him. I see no reason to suppose that the first domestication of any animal, except the elephant, implies a high civilisation among the people who established it. I cannot believe it to have been the result of a preconceived intention, followed by elaborate trials, to administer to the comfort of man. Neither can I think it arose from one successful effort made by an individual, who might thereby justly claim the title of benefactor to his race; but, on the contrary, that a vast number of half-unconscious attempts have been made throughout the course of ages, and that ultimately, by slow degrees, after many relapses, and continued selection, our several domestic breeds became firmly established.
Mechanical lesions and interference with blood and nerve supply must be corrected by manipulative treatment treatment algorithm buy genuine endep online. It will be found in such cases that a diet low in protein and rich in mineral salts is more advisable than fasting treatment trends order line endep, because the disease itself produces great weakness and emaciation 5 medications for hypertension cheap 10 mg endep fast delivery. He had contracted several gonorrheal infections medications in checked baggage discount endep line, which were suppressed in the usual manner. The sign in 15, right, testes, shows that the disease and drug poisons caused atrophy of the sex glands. He also has suffered since that time from chronic rheumatism of the arthritic type, especially in the lower extremities. In many instances of suppressed gonorrhea and syphilis I have noticed that the patients were sterile (unable to produce offspring) while still capable of performing the sex act. This caused irritation of the coccygeal gland, resulting in inflammation of the tiny sympathetic ganglion. This in turn caused excruciating pains, contraction of the sphincter ani, stubborn constipation and hemorrhoids. The coccygeal lesion was improved by manipulative treatment and the tension relieved by dilatation of the sphincter ani. In this case the sphincters of the anus and the bladder were so relaxed that feces and urine were discharged involuntarily. Protein production and storage happen here as well as control of by products from protein metabolism. Glucose formation, oxidation of fatty acids, storage of vitamins A,D, B12 and iron, detoxification by altering composition of chemicals in the body. Spleen Iron metabolism, blood cell storage (during times of stress these cells are discharged into the system. Diseases of the Liver and Spleen I prefer to describe these organs together because they are companion organs and we find that when one of them is seriously diseased the other also is more or less affected. The liver refines the end products of starchy and protein metabolism and discharges the waste materials thus extracted, partly in the form of bile, into the gall bladder and from there into the intestines, and partly in the form of urea which is excreted through the kidneys. It has been known to medical science that, in addition to serving as a burial ground for dead red corpuscles, the spleen has much to do with the purification of the blood, but it was not clear just how this purification took place. Many theories have been advanced which have failed to withstand the tests of scientific research and clinical experience. The new science of Natural Therapeutics for the first time gives a rational explanation of the true function of the spleen and of the lymph nodes in the lymphatic system. According to the new version the spleen and the lymph nodes serve to filter the mucoid pathogenic materials out of the blood stream and to condense them into little compact bodies, the so called leukocytes or phagocytes which have been mistaken for live, germ killing cells. The purpose of this condensation of pathogen, as elsewhere explained, is to render the blood serum more fluid and thus to facilitate its penetration into the intercellular spaces (osmosis) and thereby the nourishment of the cells by arterial blood and their drainage by way of the lymphatic and venous systems. One of the principal reasons why Metchnikoff assumed that the leukocytes were germ killers was because they increased in numbers with the beginning of inflammation in any part of the system. He believed that they increased because more germ killers or phagocytes were needed to overcome the inflammation creating bacteria. The new science of healing proves that inflammation takes place on account of the increase in pathogen and leukocytes, which causes obstruction in the capillary circulation. In miliary tuberculosis, malaria, typhoid fever, influenza and pernicious anemia the leukocytes are greatly reduced in numbers while the spleen and lymph nodes, the capillary circulation and the intercellular spaces are blocked with leukocytes and colloid (pathogenic) materials. The failure of the spleen and lymph nodes to continue their normal functions explains the decrease of leukocytes in the circulation and the corresponding increase of colloid materials. The enlarged spleen and swollen lymph glands in quick consumption, malaria, typhoid fever, influenza and pernicious anemia are in the same condition as a sieve that has become so clogged that it cannot any longer sift the solids from the fluids. This crowding of the lymph nodes in the neck with colloid matter can be frequently observed after the extirpation of the tonsils and adenoids, which means suppression of colloid elimination. When the lymph nodes are thus engorged with pathogenic materials the surgeon knows no better than to cut them out. The practitioner of Natural Therapeutics promotes the elimination of the excess of pathogenic materials from the circulation and thus relieves the engorged spleen and lymph nodules. The foregoing explains why in serious anemias and in the other diseases before mentioned we always find in the iris the signs of acute and subacute activity in the region of the spleen and usually also in the liver, because most of the diseases of the liver also originate in pathogenic engorgement. If these succeed in clearing the tissues of morbid materials, then follows recovery and normal function. The color of the lesions in the iris, whether they be white or greyish, brown or black, indicates what stage of pathogenic development the disease has reached.
And by the mid-1930s medications blood donation order endep 50 mg on-line, the Park Service claimed that its ``preeminence' in the recreational field had reached ``new heights medications you cant drink alcohol cheap endep express,' with its mission expanded to aiding the conservation of ``parklands everywhere keratin intensive treatment buy endep with a visa. The varied programs assumed by the National Park Service during the 1930s did in fact draw criticism medicine pictures discount endep 25 mg fast delivery. Forest Service might manage the Kings Canyon area of the Sierra (one of the principal national park proposals during the late 1930s) better than would the Park Service. Aversion to Park Service emphasis on recreational tourism development also caused the Redwoods League to oppose establishment of a national park in the redwoods area of northern California. This opposition helped cause decades of delay, with serious consequences for preservation of the redwoods. The association feared that the traditional large natural parks were threatened by too much development, and that the Park Service was distracted by an overload of new and diverse responsibilities. In a conservative reaction to the sprawl of New Deal programs, the association argued that the National Park Service was run by its ``State Park group financed by emergency funds,' and that with the new types of parks, the public was increasingly confused about what a true national park was. To the association, the ``real impetus' behind the expansion and development of the system was the ``recently conceived idea that the Park Service is the only federal agency fitted to administer recreation on federally owned or controlled lands. Some persons even go so far as to assert that its proper function is to stimulate and direct recreational travel throughout the country. It urged establishment of a ``National Primeval Park System,' which would contain only the large natural parks and be managed independently of historic or recreation areas, or of state park assistance programs. The intent of this proposal was to save the ``old time' big natural parks from ``submergence' in the ``welter of miscellaneous reservations' being created. Furthermore, the association proposed limiting future additions to the primeval park system to those areas that had not been seriously impacted by lumbering, mining, settlement, or 144 the Rise and Decline of Ecological Attitudes other adverse human activities. It was, in fact, criticized by individuals within the Service, from Cammerer to George Wright. Cammerer and his staff disliked the primeval parks proposal, believing it would divide the system into first-class and second-class areas. Writing in the American Planning and Civic Annual in 1938, former director Horace Albright, one of the principal proponents of Park Service expansion, attacked the restrictive standards as being so ``rigid' that they would ``disqualify all of the remaining superlative scenery in the United States. He claimed that those who wanted only ``unmodified territory' in the parks were actually allied with ``other national-park objectors to prevent any more areas from being incorporated into the system. Ickes wrote that opposition to legislation that would include cutover areas in the proposed Olympic National Park or allow recreation development downriver from the proposed Kings Canyon National Park ``dovetailed perfectly with the opposition of commercial opponents. In a speech to the American Planning and Civic Association shortly before his death, Wright stated that he no longer feared that the system would be loaded with ``inferior' parks, a position placing him in disagreement with the Parks Association. He believed that, in any event, the Service itself could adequately defend against ``intrusion of trash areas. By implication, where no development problems existed the parks were satisfactorily managed. The overall total dropped to 146 the Rise and Decline of Ecological Attitudes nine by 1939, as the transfer of the biologists to the Bureau of Biological Survey approached. Although biologists located in the parks retained their duty stations, they had become part of another bureau. The agreement spelled out the policies, using most of the recommendations included in Fauna No. To whatever degree the scientists had been considered part of the Park Service ``family and programs,' Sumner wrote, ``such feelings were diluted by this involuntary transfer to another agency. The Park Service, which under Stephen Mather had stressed development of the national parks for public access and enjoyment, used the recreational and public use aspects of its mandate as a springboard, justifying involvement in ever-expanding programs during the 1930s. Under such circumstances the Service continued to respond to its traditional utilitarian impulses, influenced by what its leadership wanted and by its perception of what Congress and the public intended the national park system and the Service itself to be. Pressure from the Boone and Crockett Club, the American Society of Mammalogists, and other organizations that helped bring about the 1931 predator control policies seems to have been focused on that issue alone. The forestry and fish management policies allowed continued manipulation of natural resources, largely as a means to ensure public enjoyment of the parks. The policy on predatory animals issued by Albright in 1931 contained sufficient qualifications to permit continued reduction. Still, the ecological attitudes that did emerge were inspired by the wildlife biologists, who failed to gain a commanding voice in national park management. But without a vocal public constituency specifically concerned about natural resource issues, the wildlife biologists were alone in their efforts. They were insurgents in a tradition-bound realm; for what support they did get, the biologists had to rely on shifting alliances within the Park Service, depending on the issue at hand.
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