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There is no universal heritability for a characteristic the value of heritability for a characteristic is specific for a given population in a given environment treatment xdr tb guidelines buy cheap rulide 150mg. Recall that broadsense heritability is genetic variance divided by phenotypic variance medicine vs dentistry buy rulide online now. Genetic variance depends on which genes are present medicine 5325 purchase rulide visa, which often differs between populations medicine natural purchase 150 mg rulide amex. In the example of polydactyly in rabbits, there were no genes for polydactyly in the group; so the heritability of the characteristic was zero. A different group of rabbits might contain many genes Heritabilities indicate nothing about the nature of population differences in a characteristic A common misconception about heritability is that it provides information about population differences in a characteristic. One group is from a small town in a developed country, where everyone consumes a high-protein diet. Because there is little variation in the environmental factors that affect human height and there is some genetic variation, the heritability of height in this group is high. The second group comprises the inhabitants of a single village in a developing country. The consumption of protein by these people is only 25% of that consumed by those in the first group; so their average adult height is several centimeters less than that in the developed country. Again, there is little variation in the environmental factors that determine height in this group, because everyone in the village eats the same types of food and is exposed to the same diseases. Because there is little environmental variation and there is some genetic variation, the heritability of height in this group also is high. Thus, the heritability of height in both groups is high, and the average height in the two groups is considerably different. We might be tempted to conclude that the difference in height between the two groups is genetically based-that the people in the developed country are genetically taller than the people in the developing country. This conclusion is obviously wrong, however, because the differences in height are due largely to diet-an environmental factor. Heritability provides no information about the causes of differences between populations. These limitations of heritability have often been ignored, particularly in arguments about possible social implications of genetic differences between humans. This claim led to debates about whether characteristics such as human intelligence are determined by genes or environment. Many of the early claims of genetically based human behavior were based on poor research; unfortunately, the results of these studies were often accepted at face value and led to a number of eugenic laws that discriminated against certain groups of people. Today, geneticists recognize that many behavioral characteristics are influenced by a complex interaction of genes and environment, and separating genetic effects from those of the environment is very difficult. On the basis of this observation, some people have argued that intelligence is innate and that enhanced educational opportunities cannot boost intelligence. This argument is based on the misconception that, when heritability is high, changing the environment will not alter the characteristic. Another argument based on a misconception about heritability is that ethnic differences in measures of intelligence are genetically based. As in the example of the effects of diet on human height, heritability provides no information about causes of differences among groups; it indicates only the degree to which phenotypic variance within a single group is genetically based. High heritability for a characteristic does not mean that phenotypic differences between ethnic groups are genetic. We should also remember that separating genetic and environmental effects in humans is very difficult; so heritability estimates themselves may be unreliable. There is no universal heritability for a characteristic; heritability is specific for a given population in a specific environment. Environmental factors can potentially affect characteristics with high heritability, and heritability says nothing about the nature of population differences in a characteristic. What does this heritability tell us about genetic and environmental contributions to blood pressure Locating Genes That Affect Quantitative Characteristics the statistical methods described for use in analyzing quantitative characteristics can be used both to make predictions about the average phenotype expected in offspring and to estimate the overall contribution of genes to variation in the characteristic. These methods do not, however, allow us to identify and determine the influence of individual genes that affect quantitative characteristics. As discussed in the introduction to this chapter, chromosome regions with genes that control polygenic characteristics are referred to as quantitative trait loci.
Industry groups treatment 7th feb cardiff rulide 150mg on line, nongovernmental organizations medicine 101 buy rulide 150 mg free shipping, and community groups target audiences via direct mail and e-mail symptoms stomach cancer cheap rulide 150mg amex, selecting medicine cabinets with mirrors generic rulide 150 mg overnight delivery, synthesizing, and thereby selectively emphasizing a limited range of news that may be editorialized. These developments have attracted relatively little research attention of direct relevance to tobacco use or the use of these media tools by either tobacco control or tobacco industry interests, suggesting an important gap in knowledge. Regardless, in whatever form they take, news sources are an important and often unparalleled source of information for both the general public and influential decision makers. The Role of the Media Tobacco issues have become increasingly newsworthy as organized public health efforts to reduce tobacco use have grown and tobacco issues have become more politicized. Over the last 40 years, the news media have paid significant attention to the tobacco-caused deaths of famous people; attempts to increase cigarette taxes, introduce and uphold smoke-free laws, and mount antismoking campaigns; criticism of tobacco industry advertising, promotions, and conduct in opposing effective tobacco controls; and private and state efforts to recover smokingrelated health care costs from the tobacco industry. Much of the increase in news coverage results from a rise in the number of newsworthy tobacco-related events in the United States and internationally. However, this increase also reflects explicit efforts to create newsworthy events and stories and to shape news coverage by those working to promote or to undermine tobacco control progress. The newsworthiness of tobacco control should not, however, be measured solely by the volume of news coverage. In this study, health stories were broadly defined as being those relating to national health policy, health issues or specific diseases and treatments, or social policy issues indirectly related to health, including elections, economic policy, gun control, poverty, welfare, and Social Security. The presence and prominence of tobacco control material in the news are indisputable. However, the tobacco control research community has largely neglected studying news coverage and the response to and influence of this coverage on smokers, on the broader community, and on policymakers. This low level of research effort, compared with the relatively high level of media coverage of tobacco issues and its potential impact, points to the need for a greater focus on media issues in tobacco control. This chapter examines concepts in news media coverage of tobacco, summarizes research on such coverage and its influence on tobacco use, and outlines a future research agenda based on trends found in existing data. By understanding the nature and potential impact of the news media, tobacco control stakeholders can gain a promising new area of knowledge in the fight to reduce the public disease burden due to smoking. Perspectives on News Story Selection and Content General news coverage can be viewed at a superficial level as a reflection of observable events happening in the world at a given time that are deemed newsworthy. Using this narrow definition, a change in the volume of coverage of an issue such as tobacco use could be considered to reflect a change in the occurrence of relevant, newsworthy events. In this vein, one research tradition focuses on the accuracy and comprehensiveness of news coverage12 and how they might be improved. The news media cannot simply reflect the external world because of its sheer vastness and complexity and because the media are a critical part of the mechanism through which that world is both assembled and understood. According to agenda-setting theory, the degree of emphasis the mass media place on an issue influences the priority the public affords to that issue. This designation suggests to the public that a topic is important or interesting enough to receive media attention, thereby implicitly contributing to public notions of the relative importance of issues and events. Further, the news media can choose, create, sustain, and Agenda Setting From a social problems viewpoint, the news media constitute a vital institutional arena within which competition for public attention to a given problem can occur. The Role of the Media shape an issue for public consumption by influencing how issues are presented or framed for consideration by the public and decision makers. The result is that audiences can be presented with an account of a problem as well as perspectives for thinking about it and potential avenues for its resolution. Some research has found that stakeholders who seek to shape media coverage in an effort to guide or oppose social change can instigate news coverage of an issue. For example, one study found that medical science reporting is based on regular journalistic review of a very limited number of top science journals. Analyzing mainstream news coverage as a reflection of powerful societal institutions as well as an instigator of change may, therefore, be most appropriate. Similarly, the identification of stakeholders in news media coverage of tobacco use issues is worthy of critical analysis. For example, Wakefield and colleagues28 analyzed Australian news coverage of a liability trial involving a nonsmoking worker with laryngeal cancer and her employer at a bar. They found debate shaped around worker inequity, smoking bans, and employer liability that made it difficult for the tobacco industry to publicly assert that the issue is one of personal responsibility or accommodation of smokers. Framing As part of the power of news resides in gaining attention for particular issues, understanding which issues are considered and how they are shaped for public consumption is important to analyzing news coverage. Goffman argues that this structure always is necessary to facilitate social interaction. A story may also define how the issue was instigated or interests that need to be considered in solving a problem.
Self-reported exposure to any advertisements for tobacco products Study Setting/sample size Borzekowski et al medicine 95a pill discount rulide uk. Both attention paid and attitudes toward cigarette advertising were significantly related to smoking treatment bulging disc buy generic rulide online. A "hedonistic" factor derived from a factor analysis of values-based questionnaire items was positively associated with both smoking status and the advertising variables 9 treatment issues specific to prisons purchase 150 mg rulide overnight delivery. In every case but one medicine 44291 buy 150 mg rulide mastercard, nearly twice the proportion of smokers than nonsmokers could correctly recognize tobacco advertisements and slogans. A consistent dose-response relationship was found between receptivity to protobacco media and 30-day cigarette smoking, even when controlling for social influences to smoke. Hours/week reading various types of magazines, receptivity to tobacco advertising and promotions, and drive for thinness Attention paid to cigarette advertising in magazines and at point of sale, and attitudes toward cigarette advertising Cross-Sectional Studies of the Association of Tobacco Marketing with Adolescent Smoking (continued) Study Setting/sample size Carson et al. However, in a multivariate logistic regression adjusting for other attitudes and beliefs about smoking as well as smokers in the social environment, opinions about tobacco advertising were not related to smoking. Receptivity to tobacco advertising and exposure to smokers were independently associated with susceptibility to smoking among never smokers, but the relationship appeared stronger for receptivity to advertising. Receptivity to tobacco marketing materials was found to be strongly associated with susceptibility, even when controlling for social influences. Findings Recognition-matched logos and brand names to product type Cross-Sectional Studies of the Association of Tobacco Marketing with Adolescent Smoking (continued) 246 Receptivity to tobacco advertising and exposure to smokers Susceptibility to smoking: never smokers who do not rule out trying a cigarette or taking one from a friend, if offered 3-level status: (1) never smoker resolved not to smoke; (2) has smoked, but resolved not to smoke again; and (3) has smoked but no clear resolve not to smoke again/susceptible Current smokers (in past 30 days) vs. Among adolescent nonsmokers, having cigarette promotional items appeared to be associated with smoking susceptibility. Thirty percent of susceptible adolescent never smokers were prepared to use a cigarette promotional item. Overall, a strong relationship was found between smoking status and willingness to use a promotional item. I n f l u e n c e o f To b a c c o M a r k e t i n g o n S m o k i n g B e h a v i o r Gilpin et al. The positive effect for protobacco advertising was greater than the negative effect for antitobacco advertising. Cross-Sectional Studies of the Association of Tobacco Marketing with Adolescent Smoking (continued) Study Setting/sample size Goldberg 2003 130 Over 1,700 14- to 17-year-old Hong Kong students Goldstein et al. However, those who smoke at least occasionally were more likely to rate smoking as having a variety of positive benefits. Ratings of opinions about what 3-level status: (1) never tried, cigarette advertising conveyed (2) tried, and (3) occasional. Susceptibility was based on answers to 3 questions: If one of your best friends were to offer you a cigarette, would you smoke it Cross-Sectional Studies of the Association of Tobacco Marketing with Adolescent Smoking (continued) 248 Weekly exposure to retail tobacco marketing was associated with a 50% increase in the odds of ever smoking, even when controlling for parent and peer smoking. Retail marketing exposure was second only to owning a cigarette promotional item in increasing the odds of ever smoking. All levels of receptivity to advertising were significantly associated with being a susceptible never smoker and with being an experimenter (ever tried or experimented, even a few puffs) or a regular smoker. Being an experimenter was not significantly associated with owning an item, and being a regular smoker was not associated with having a favorite advertisement. Study Setting/sample size Hawkins and Hane 2000 133 843 middle/junior high-school age students from a large midwestern metropolitan area Henriksen et al. I n f l u e n c e o f To b a c c o M a r k e t i n g o n S m o k i n g B e h a v i o r Kaufman et al. Samples of advertisements Ever smoking (with brand information removed) from 42 magazines and 2 newspapers for measuring (1) recall (proportion of cigarette, perfume, or alcohol advertisements previously seen by students), (2) proportion of cigarette advertisements for which product was recognized, and (3) proportion of advertisements for which the brand was recognized Self-reported exposure to various cigarette-marketing stimuli; attitude toward cigarette advertisements as attractive (liking) 5-level status: (1) never smoked; (2) tried; (3) used to smoke but not now; (4) sometimes, but less than once/week; and (5) 6+ cigarettes/week Knowledge of sport sponsorship. Children also listed the amount of their viewing time of recent snooker championship on British television Self-reported exposure to snooker championships on British television, the first sponsored by Benson & Hedges and the second sponsored by Embassy brand Cross-Sectional Studies of the Association of Tobacco Marketing with Adolescent Smoking (continued) Study Setting/sample size Klitzner et al. The first survey included 5 secondary schools; the second survey included only 3 of the original 5 schools but surveyed 880 students from the same number of classes selected at random At the time of the first survey, Benson & Hedges sponsored the snooker championship. The cigarette brands best known to the children and most associated by them with sports were the ones most heavily promoted by television sponsorship, including brands other than Benson & Hedges. The authors contend that sports sponsorship serves as cigarette advertising to children. With this variable in the model, none of the individual exposure variables was significant.
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